Campania is made of hills and plain coastlines. It’s always been plenty of human settlements. Rivers crossing Appennine Mountains form beautiful flat grounds, but the very special thing is the volcanic area.
Human presence in Campania is testified since Paleolithic but there isn’t much evidence due to a very intrusive human interference.
Tools from Paleolithic were found especially on Campania’s islands as well as materials from Neolithic age. The wide flat ground surrounding Capua was an Osci domain close to the end of the Bronze age. They surely got in touch with Villanovian civilization.
When Greeks came in VIII century AD they really had an influence all along the coastline. Their culture was in sharp contrast with the inland Etruscan civilization. Rivalry between these two civilizations grew day by day until Etruscans gave up in V century BC. At the time Campania is also invaded by Samnit clans moving from mountains to the flat ground areas.
Early Samnite invasions put a stop to Greek influence but then again it spreads through, even among Samnites, until Romans came and put a stop to Greek’s expansion for good. Romans produced a few of great architectural works in the region that prospers under their influence. But Vesuvius eruption in 79 AD is a shock for the local economy and for development in the area. A catastrphic event at all.